Parma, Italy

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Parma is situated in Emilia-Romagna region, Italy. The word “parma” came to be used in Latin from Etruscans meaning “circular shield”. As part of the Roman Empire it was founded in 183 BC. Because of its location on the Via Emilia, an ancient Roman road, Parma was undoubtedly of strategic importance. Later it was ruled by Milan and France and in 1513 was added to the Papal States by Pope Julius II.

Parma Cathedral, Italy Parma Cathedral, Italy

In 1545, Pope Paul III created the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza. The Duchy passed through the female line to the Spanish Bourbons. Napoleon I annexed the Duchy to France in 1802.
The Congress of Vienna (1814–15) awarded it to Marie Louise, who ruled it from 1816 to 1847. It was then given back to the Bourbons.
In 1860 the Duchy was incorporated into the Kingdom of Sardinia.

Garibaldi Monument, Parma, Italy Square, Parma, Italy

The Parma school of painting flourished there in 16th century and one of the leading artists there were Correggio and Parmigiano.

Nowadays Parma is a rich agricultural market, a transportation junction, and a major industrial center. Manufactures include textiles, machinery, footwear, pharmaceuticals etc.

Parmesan cheese originated from the area around Parma.  Italians also created many other cheeses, including gorgonzola, mozzarella, provolone, and ricotta.

Parma, Italy Parma, Italy

One of the major sights in the city is Palazzo della Pilotta.
The Pilotta Palace, built in1583, was the home of the powerful Farnese family. Giulia Farnese was the mistress of Pope Alexander VI, and her brother, Allesandro, became Pope Paul III. Allesandro’s son, Pier Luigi, became the Duke of Parma in 1545 and built the palace. The existing complex includes three courts: the Cortile di San Pietro Martire(now best known as Cortile della Pilotta), Cortile del Guazzatoio and the Cortile della Racchetta. The buildings now accommodate the National Archaeological Museum, the Bodoni Museum, the Teatro Farnese, and the National Gallery.

Parma Baptistery, Italy The Piazza del Duomo has three major components: the cathedral, the Bishop’s Palace, and the Baptistery. The Baptistery of Parma is a religious edifice in Parma. The Baptistery, started in 1176 and finished in the early 14th Century, is a pink marble octagon. The marble is from Verona—the dark pink represents blood, and the light pink is for purity. Carvings on the door depict King Herod at a banquet, Christ being washed, and Salome getting John’s head.
Architecturally the baptistery of Parma Cathedral marks a transition between the Romanesque and Gothic styles and it is considered to be among the most important Medieval monuments in Europe.
San Giovanni Evangelista is a church, part of a complex including both a Benedictine convent and a grocery. Works on the abbey and the church started in 10th century over a pre-existing oratory associated with St. Colombanus. In 1477 the whole complex was damaged by a fire. The abbey basilica was rebuilt from around 1490.
The construction ended around 1519.
San Giovanni Evangelista, Parma, Italy

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Map of Parma, Italy

Parma, Italy

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